"I'm still ambitious, and this is something I really wanted," Charvis said. "I have an enormous amount of hunger to be captain, and there is still life in these old legs.
"We have a lot of senior players at the club who will all still have their influence, and it's just a great honour to be asked by Rob Andrew to lead the side."
The 77-times capped backrower made 19 starts and two bench appearances last season, scoring two tries in a hugely influential spell after signing from French side Tarbes 12 months ago.
Falcons director of rugby Andrew said: "This wasn't actually such a difficult choice because Colin wants it so badly and he is so well equipped to do the job.
"He has been nothing short of sensational since he joined us last year. People who don't know him well said at the time that he was trouble, that he was bad with the press and all that sort of stuff, but I can honestly say we haven't had a single problem with him.
"The fans love him, the players and coaches get on tremendously with him and he has been spot-on with the press up here.
"He loves it in Newcastle because the Geordies just let him have the privacy he needs to get on and live his own life.
"He is a man who says what he thinks if he sees something wrong, and while some people in the Welsh press or on the terraces may have had problems with that, I only see it as a positive thing."
Charvis, who missed Wales' Grand Slam triumph with a foot injury, says he is keen to add to his 77 Test caps.
"I spoke to Rob and to Wales coach Mike Ruddock about it, and I still feel there is unfinished business as far as my international rugby is concerned," he said.
"I could take the easy way out and call it a day now, but I want to play again for Wales. They have a lot of competition for places in the backrow with some great young players coming through, and it may well be that I'm not selected, but I'm not throwing the towel in yet.
"I want to give myself every chance of being picked, and the one thing that's certain if I retire from Test rugby at this stage is that I won't even have a chance.
"Who knows what will happen in the future? I can only speak as I find myself today, but I still have the drive within me to be a success for both Wales and for Newcastle."